Osteoarthritis of the knee

Osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis) - Cause, treatment and measures

Osteoarthritis usually appears late in life. Osteoarthritis is defined as «slowly progressive monoarticular (or rarely, polyarticular) condition that can affect the hands and the large weight-bearing joints.Osteoarthritis comes from the Greek word "arthrosis" which means joint. When you talk about osteoarthritis, this means joint wear in most conversations. Scroll down to see more exercise videos with exercises that can relieve pain and malfunction due to osteoarthritis.


TIP: Many people with osteoarthritis and arthritis like to use specially adapted compression gloves (link opens in new window) for improved function in hands and fingers. These are especially common among rheumatologists and those who suffer from chronic carpal tunnel syndrome. Possibly there is also toe pullers og specially adapted compression socks if you are bothered by stiff and sore toes - possibly hallux valgus (inverted big toe).


Also read: 15 Early Signs of Rheumatism

joint overview - rheumatic arthritis


VIDEO: 5 Cloth Exercises Against Spinal Stenosis (Narrow Nervous Conditions in the Back)

Osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis) can cause tighter conditions in the back that can cause episodic nerve irritation. Such tight nerve conditions are also known as spinal stenosis.


These five exercise and stretching exercises can help you maintain your mobility in the back and thus relieve pinched nerves. Click below to see the exercises.

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VIDEO: 5 Strength Exercises Against Narrow Nervous Conditions in the Back Due to Osteoarthritis

It is also important to increase the strength of the deeper back muscles to relieve your back joints. In the video below you can see five strength exercises that can help you get a stronger back and thus also prevent further deterioration. The exercise program should be done four times a week for optimal effect.

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Cause: Why did I have osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis, also known as osteoarthritis or osteoarthritis, is caused by normal wear of joints and cartilage - but having said that, it is certain joint diseases and arthritis that can cause osteoarthritis at an earlier age. Of course, there are also certain risk factors for developing osteoarthritis as mentioned later in the article. Cartilage is that bit of joint which lies as a protective layer around the end of the leg. In case of heavy wear, this cartilage can be broken down gradually and you risk getting bone to bone contact in the joint.


Don't let osteoarthritis stop you with everyday activities - Photo Wikimedia Commons

Do not let osteoarthritis stop you from thinking about everyday activity - Photo Wikimedia Commons

Where is it most common to get osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is usually developed in weight-bearing joints such as knees, neck, hofter and the lower part of the lower back. But it is so All joints can be affected by osteoarthritis.


Also read: So can Exercise in Hot Water Pool against Fibromyalgia

this is how training in a hot water pool helps with fibromyalgia 2




What is the difference between osteoarthritis and arthritis?

Osteoarthritis is normal joint wear. Arthritis indicates that we also have an inflammatory process in the joint, such as in rheumatoid arthritis. Some typical symptoms of arthritis are redness of the skin around the joint, clearly swelling og significantly reduced joint movement.


What are the risk factors for osteoarthritis?

Increased load can increase the chance of osteoarthritis / joint wear. High body weight increases the risk of osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints such as the hip, neck and knees. Generally high load or injury from sports and work can also speed up any osteoarthritis, and for example, handball players tend to develop osteoarthritis of the knees due to injuries and repetitive strain on hard surfaces.


Heavy repetitive work can lead to previous osteoarthritis - Photo Wikimedia Commons

Heavy, repetitive work can lead to previous osteoarthritis - Photo Wikimedia Commons


X-ray osteoarthritis:

According to «Compendium on Rheumatology»From 1998, half of those over 65 have osteoarthritis on X-ray examination. When the age rises above 75 years, 80% have osteoarthritis findings on X-rays.


Also read: The 5 Stages of Osteoarthritis (How To worsen Osteoarthritis)

the 5 stages of osteoarthritis


What Are Common Osteoarthritis Symptoms?

Joint wear can cause symptoms in the joints in the form of joint stiffness og joint pain. One also experience soreness around the affected joint and sometimes also 'muscular guarding' in the form of tight muscles / trigger points as a result. Reduced joint movement is also common. Sometimes with significant osteoarthritis it can also be experienced as if the legs rub against each other due to lack of cartilage, so-called 'bone grinding'. Another thing that can occur in moderate to significant osteoarthritis is that the body puts down extra legs, so-called 'bone spurs'.


Prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis

When it comes to osteoarthritis, it is best to notwidow preventive. It is difficult to do anything especially when the osteoarthritis is there first. If you are overweight you should try to lose weight as this will reduce the load on weight bearing joints. Specific training can also help delay any osteoarthritis. Joint mobilization performed by a chiropractor or manual therapist also has a proven clinical effect:


«A meta-study (French et al, 2011) showed that manual treatment of hip osteoarthritis had a positive effect in the form of pain relief and functional improvement. The study concluded that manual treatment is more effective than training in the treatment of osteoarthritis. "


Glucosamine sulfate in combination with chondroitin sulfate (Read: 'Glucosamine sulfate against wear?') have also shown effect on moderate osteoarthritis of the knees in a larger collection study (Clegg et al., 2006).

The conclusion was:

“Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate alone or in combination did not reduce pain effectively in the overall group of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Exploratory analyzes suggest that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be effective in the subgroup of patients with moderate-to-severe knee pain. "


A statistically significant improvement of 79% (in other words, 8 out of 10 improved) was seen in the group of moderate to severe (moderate-to-severe) knee pain due to osteoarthritis, but unfortunately this was of little importance when the results of this study were published. in the media. Among other things, the study was mentioned in the Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association 9/06 under the heading "Glucosamine has no effect on osteoarthritis", although it had a statistically significant effect on a subgroup in the study.


Also read: 8 Natural Anti-inflammatory Measures Against Rheumatism

8 anti-inflammatory measures against rheumatism


One can question whether the author of the article had only relied on the articles in the daily press or read only half the study conclusion. Here is the evidence that glucosamine in combination with chondroitin sulfate has a statistically significant effect compared to placebo:

Glucosamine study

Glucosamine study

Explanation: In the third column we see the effect of glucosamine + chondroitin in combination versus the effect of placebo (sugar pills). The effect is significant as the dash (bottom of the third column) does not cross 1.0 - if it had crossed 1 this indicates zero statistical significance and the result is thus invalid.


We see that this is not the case with the combination glucosamine + chondroitin in the treatment of knee pain within the subgroup with moderate to severe pain, and questions why this has not been given more focus in relevant journals and daily press.


Read on: Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis? Effectively?


Recommended Self-Help for Rheumatic and Chronic Pain

Soft sooth compression gloves - Photo Medipaq

Click on the image to read more about compression gloves.

  • Mini tapes (many with rheumatic and chronic pain feel that it is easier to train with custom elastics)
  • Trigger point Balls (self-help to work the muscles on a daily basis)
  • Arnica cream or heat conditioner (many people report some pain relief if they use, for example, arnica cream or heat conditioner)

- Many people use arnica cream for pain due to stiff joints and sore muscles. Click on the image above to read more about how arnica cream can help relieve some of your pain situation.




Exercises against osteoarthritis in the hip

Exercise of stability muscle can help the body to relieve joints and intervertebral discs. By training both strength in nearby muscles, as well as regularly performing movement exercises - such as those shown below - you can maintain good blood circulation and muscular elasticity. We recommend that you try to do these, or similar, exercises daily.


VIDEO: 7 Exercises against Osteoarthritis / Wear in the Hip and Back

Feel free to subscribe our YouTube channel (click here) for more free exercise programs and health knowledge.


Read more: - How Yoga Can Relieve Fibromyalgia And Chronic Pain


Osteoarthritis of the hip - Coxarthrosis

hip pain on the front

Read the main article about osteoarthritis of the hip here (click here or the image above to open the main hip osteoarthritis article).


What Is Hip Arthritis?

The hip joint consists of the hip socket, which is part of the pelvic bone, and the femur of the femur. Both the hip socket and the hip ball are "clad" with smooth cartilage which ensures that movements take place with the least possible resistance.

Osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis) of the hip is, as the name suggests, wear and tear changes in the hip joint, usually caused by old age. Clinicians sometimes use the term coxarthrosis. Medical history and findings at the medical examination will give strong suspicion of the diagnosis, and it can be confirmed by an X-ray examination.
The hip joint is the joint in the body where osteoarthritis occurs most frequently. Elderly patients often see x-ray wear, but only a small proportion of these patients have symptoms. So osteoarthritis detected on X-ray does not mean major ailments. 90% of patients over the age of 65 who complain of hip pain have osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Each year, approx. 6.500 hip prostheses in Norway, of which 15% are reoperations.


Osteoarthritis is a debilitating condition that destroys and breaks down the joint. In the beginning, it is the articular cartilage that is destroyed. The smooth surface between the hip socket and the femur of the femur will eventually become uneven. When walking, "frictions" occur in the joint, which causes pain. Eventually there will be calcifications, mobility will be poorer and the joint will become stiffer.
There is a distinction between primary (age-related) and secondary hip joints. The following conditions increase the chance of having secondary osteoarthritis of the hip: obesity, previous hip or femur fractures, congenital malformations of the hip and inflammation of the hip joint.



Pain gradually develops in the groin and front and side of the thigh. The pain often radiates down to the knee. The pain often comes when you start to walk. They become less intense after walking for a few seconds or minutes, but then get worse after a while. A lot of stress on the legs increases the pain. Gradually, pain develops at rest and at night. At night pain the condition has come a long way. Walking distance becomes shorter, patient slips and must use cane.


NEXT PAGE: - The 5 Stages of Kneartrose (How Aggravated Osteoarthritis worsens)

the 5 stages of osteoarthritis

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Frequently Asked Questions About Osteoarthritis

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  1. French, HP. Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee - a systematic review. Man Ther. 2011 Apr; 16 (2): 109-17. doi: 10.1016 / j.math.2010.10.011. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
  2. «Compendium on Rheumatology», 1997-98. Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland Hospital. Novartisserien, faghefte nr.1, 1997. Professor Hans-Jacob Haga.
  3. Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O'Dell JR, Hooper MM, Bradley JD, Bingham CO 3rd, Weisman MH, Jackson CG, Lane NE, Cush JJ, Moreland LW, Schumacher HR Jr, Oddis CV, Wolfe F, Molitor JA, Yocum DE, Schnitzer TJ, Furst DE, Sawitzke AD, Shi H, Brandt KD, Moskowitz RW, Williams HJ. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23; 354 ​​(8): 795-808.


Frequently Asked Questions:


What is another word for knee wear?

Another word for knee wear is knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis means wear and tear in joints and cartilage. This wear may be age-related or in more rare cases trauma-related (osteoarthritis can develop more quickly in an injured joint - for example, handball players have an increased incidence of knee wear).


What are the causes of osteoarthritis of the joints?

You will find the explanation and information about the causes of osteoarthritis in the joints under the section 'cause' later in the article.


What do osteoarthritis and nitric oxide have to do with each other? Can nitric oxide treat osteoarthritis?

Nitric oxide is a toxic gas formed during the metabolism of L-arginine by nitric oxide synthesis (NOS). Increased presence of nitric oxide can be seen in osteoarthritis and joint wear. When ingesting NG-monomethyl-t-arginine, a decrease in nitric oxide has been seen and thus less damage and inflammation in the areas (read more here ). No, nitric oxide cannot treat osteoarthritis.


Can you get osteoarthritis of the hip due to work?

Yes, you can develop osteoarthritis of the hip at work - especially occupations that put a lot of weight on the hip joints have increased the incidence of joint wear and osteoarthritis. As mentioned earlier in the article:

High body weight increases the risk of osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints such as the hip, neck and knees. Generally high load or injury from sports and work can also speed up any osteoarthritis, and for example, handball players tend to develop osteoarthritis of the knees due to injuries and repetitive strain on hard surfaces.

18 replies
  1. Inger says:

    I have osteoarthritis in my hands and feet, and have therefore received chemotherapy in the form of tablets: methodextrate, which I take once a week. But I get more and more nauseous as the weeks go by, I soon feel I have no strength left. Is unfamiliar with this preparation. Then I wonder if anyone has - or has used such tablets and can tell about any side effects and how they have an effect on possible osteoarthritis. Have been using them for 8 weeks now ..

    • Ida Christine says:

      Hi Inger. I saw your comment and just wanted to make a comment. My mom also gets chemotherapy for it (and psoriasis). She struggled a lot with nausea all the time. Then she received the cytotoxic drug in injection form and she got rid of the nausea. Maybe something you can talk to your doctor about?

    • Anonym says:

      Do you take Folic Acid with Methotrexate then? These should prevent side effects such as nausea.

  2. Karin says:

    Hello. After 15 years as a former aerobics instructor, I have developed polyarthrosis.

    Has demonstrated osteoarthritis in both knees, a hip, big toe, fingers, shoulder, neck and lower back. Also has Chiari and Modic changes in the back. Stiffened three joints after spondylolysis as a 19-year-old. Has been operated on and "cleaned" three times in the knees. Last time total synovectomy for approx. two years ago. Condromatosis and chondrocalcinosis were then detected in both knees. These are two diagnoses that I do not get any proper information about from a doctor / orthopedist. It seems like they do not quite want to deal with it… Possibly because it is not completely normal?

    I do not know, but do not think I get proper advice ang training. The orthopedist who last operated on me said that the knee was really "angry" and that it is autoimmune. The rheumatologists say something else, so it's a little difficult to relate to this and what I should do. It seems that they know little about the two additional diagnoses. It takes little before I get inflammation in tendon attachments and swelling / pain. It makes training difficult and unpredictable.

    I have had some help from a manual therapist, but she has had three maternity leave in four years, so it has not been so easy to get continuous follow-up… Now go to a good physiotherapist and we try carefully with strength training.

    Can you give any advice regarding training or treatment? Or do you know of anyone who has knowledge of chondrocalcinosis? All I want is a pain-free everyday life and to postpone dentures for as long as possible.

    Grateful for advice and input.

    • Thomas v / vondt.net says:


      No, you're right - chondromatosis and chondrocalcinosis are not common diagnoses and have somewhat unclear clinical guidelines. Therefore, it is difficult for the orthopedists you have been in contact with to deal with.

      As you know, autoimmune disease means that the body's own immune system attacks itself - in your case, it seems to attack joints and cartilage, as in rheumatoid arthritis.

      Without seeing you in person, it will be impossible for us to give you any specific advice and input. Especially considering how complicated your everyday pain is. Without seeing you clinically, we can unfortunately not say anything other than that we encourage you to continue at clinics that also have a high focus on training, as well as physical therapy.

      But if you want some more generalized training exercises then we can of course help you with that. Is there anything you need help with?

      Good luck and good recovery!

      • Vigdis says:

        Thanks for reply. General training advice for Osteoarthritis does not work so well. I get help now from a physiotherapist where we start with two leg strength machines to see what I can tolerate. Have taken leg press with a fairly heavy load and almost static sometimes and it has gone well so far. On the other hand, pool training at the "old lady" level gives me great pain afterwards! Rart. And I walk a lot, but it works best on even ground. So not awkward as recommended. So now I continue to test strength training as long as it goes well. The goal is to have a better everyday life and postpone knee prostheses for as long as possible.

        I wish I could talk to someone who knows about these two unusual diagnoses because this also has something to do with timing and advice regarding knee prostheses. Ordinary orthopedists test the stiffness of the joints, but I have hypermobile joints and have not stiffened, so then they think that it "is not so bad". But they do not feel the pain and do not see the swelling when the problems occur. Have lived with this for over ten years, it did not come gradually but suddenly. As you can see, I am not within an A4 standard and thus feel I do not get the help I need.

        Neither orthopedists nor rheumatologists will deal with it, and in a way it becomes an additional burden. Do you know of anyone who has any knowledge about chondrocalcinosis or chondromatosis, I am very interested to know. Preferably by email if there is a better place for contact. ?

        • Thomas v / vondt.net says:

          Hei igjen,

          Ok, we recommend that you continue with what you feel good about. Your case is, as you say, not entirely A4. Hypermobility can be tested through the Beighton Score Hypermobility Test - have you ever taken this or similar hypermobility tests?

          We will tell you if we come across any experts on your mentioned topic and if we hear about any experts in chondrocalcinosis and chondromatosis.

    • Nicolay v / vondt.net says:

      Hi Berit,

      Unfortunately, we do not understand your question here. Could you please write a little more complementary?

      Thank you in advance.


  3. Gerd Valkve says:

    One week after 2 cortisone injections, I got muscle pain in my body. Took it up with an orthopedist / physiotherapist, he had not heard of it before. After cortisone injection no. 3, I have had pronounced pain in my arms and legs. Could it still be a side effect?

  4. Anita says:

    I have osteoarthritis in the thumb area on both hands. Has been operated on three times. Last time, they inserted an artificial part of my tendon between my squeaking legs.

  5. Erna Marie says:

    Has detected osteoarthritis in fingers, toes, lower back and knees. Has received a knee prosthesis in the left knee in 2016 and trains 2-3 days per week. Has since February -18 participated in «rehabilitation group training». This is incredibly good for me. Without exercise, I immediately notice stiffness in the joints. It costs a lot to train at a fitness center, but it is an investment in your own health.

  6. Berit says:

    I have a type of Ataxia, RA and osteoarthritis of the neck. Now suspect osteoarthritis of the hip due to pain in the lower back and hip. Holds it with CT, does not like MRI. When is surgery relevant? Trying to exercise a little at home. Can not stand physiotherapy due to constant fatigue. I am 67 years old and in despair.

  7. Linen says:

    Hello . I have been very bothered that I have pain in my wrists, fingers (above and below the hand), feet, ankles and below the knees. Has been like this for a while now. Can also say that this worsens with cold, then it is even worse. Any idea what it is?

  8. Steinar says:

    I have been diagnosed with polyarthrosis. It started with a hip that was a little sore when stretched 4 years ago. An expert was quickly out with the diagnosis after a test of mobility in one hip, however the one I did not have pain in. Since then, I have had pain almost all over my body. I'm getting silly because I do not get an answer anywhere. Fingers are stiff in the morning, lower back. There is something in the back of the lower back that hurts a little all the time. The hips are throbbing, not very painful, but it is noticeable. All right, it could be polyarthrosis.

    But then: One day, pain in both wrists, and thumbs and an ankle. Two days later, stiff in both ankles and one big toe. So very sore in the shoulders the week after, two days later I have pain in the tendons around the elbows and a thumb. Then I may have periods of stiff neck and a h .. headache. Then we rotate it all and take it in reverse order.

    I have to take Vimovo regularly because if I cut I get feverish all over my body, my back muscles start to ache and my whole body feels aching and "rotten". I also struggle with unbelievable fatigue, poor memory, language chops when I get tired, or get annoyed.

    I read an article from one or another association about the symptoms of Fibromyalgia, it sounded spot on this with exhaustion, memory, language murmur and that it comes and goes.

    I have no feeling that something is "worn", which pictures also confirm. I have a feeling that something is seeping around my body and that it is gathering around my joints (it sounds silly, but that's how it feels). The only place where it hurts is in the hips and lower back / buttocks (ice joints) .. The doctors do not bother to listen to me anymore, they have said polyarthrosis. They can not answer me on all this floating. I train ice hockey all year round, as does my boy, but I can not stand the habit of looking at him anymore. Freezing a little is death .. whole bodies contract and become stiff.

    Is an active krabat of 52 years, with private sports team, does not sit still for a second, not overweight at all.

    This is polyarthrosis ..?


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